On the other hand, the term “location accuracy” addresses the knowledge (after the data take) of the image position accuracy. Pleiades-HR is a two-spacecraft constellation of CNES (Space Agency of France), representing a long-term engagement with the introduction of advanced technologies in Earth observation capabilities. The structure is completed by four vertical struts at each angle of the satellite and by four lateral panels made of alloy honeycomb, which concur to the lateral stiffness. One of them is the steady-mode, that provides a full set of couples (i.e., radiance mean, radiance standard deviation). 70) 71). High resolution imaging without satellite slowing. Like other 0.5m resolution sensors, these satellites collect both panchromatic and RGB & NIR multispectral data. The AMETHIST calibration method gives the same magnitude of residuals as the direct method that compute normalization parameters on uniform snowy expanses, with far less operational constraints. The full detection electronics consist in 5 panchromatic MVPs, 3 multispectral MVPs, 3 panchromatic MSP (embedded in a single mechanical module) and 1 multispectral MSP. 2) The French and Spanish Defence Mission Centers serve the defence users of each country. Pleiades-1B Satellite Sensor (0.5m) The basic data products of Pleiades are level 0 and level 1 imagery (up to orthorectified imagery). The short term objective is now to use this POLO data set to improve the ROLO (Robotic Lunar Observatory) lunar model, developed by USGS (United States Geological Survey) which is internationally accepted and used by every space agency for the calibration of satellite which are able to aim at the Moon. Assembly of a single substrate with 4 stripe filters over the detector window, Separate the different spectral bands in the FOV. W < 980 mm 57) 58). It also provides the onboard time and the PPS (Pulse Per Second) count needed to synchronize the system. Both the space and the ground segment have been designed to provide information in record time, offering daily revisit capacity to any point on the globe and outstanding acquisition capabilities to meet the full spectrum of civil and military requirements. The intent of this agreement is to provide a long-term perspective on a number of high-quality data products and services on the commercial market for a wide range of applications in the fields of cartography, agriculture, forestry, hydrology, and geological prospecting. 13) 14). Each user center is able to manage the user image acquisition requests and product generations, they include: 60) 61) 62) 63) 64), - An X-band antenna for data acquisition, 3-channel signal demodulation and ingestion system, - An image processing unit to inventorize, catalog, and archive the data, and to produce imaging products, - A programming unit to manage the mission planning requests. The FPA is offering a wide variety of new technologies for the imaging function. This ability can be used to stop the scanline projection on the ground during the satellite overpass, so that each detector sees the same landscape during the image capture: this is called the steady-mode (Figure 38). (image credit: CNES Distribution Astrium/SPOT Image), Figure 17: Re-floating operation of the Costa Concordia. The X-band antenna employs a corrugated horn (omni-directional) with a 64º aperture. This “photon in - bit out” concept may be summarized by: radiometric performance optimization at lowest costs. Belgium and France are already partners in the long-term SPOT program. Fiwre la: Pleiades panchromatic image of Melbourne, Australia n December 16, 201 1, the Plei- ades-l A was launched successfully in orbit via a Russian Soyuz ST rocket out of French Guiana. In the same timeframe, the Italian Space Agency (ASI) performed also studies of a new program under the name of COSMO-SkyMed. Pleiades, in Greek mythology, the seven daughters of the Titan Atlas and the Oceanid Pleione: Maia, Electra, Taygete, Celaeno, Alcyone, Sterope, and Merope. The long-term HMA goal are rapid and reliable access to time-sensitive information is a significant strategic resource for any community. The Kiruna station enables to daily receive the Pleiades images, in complement of the Toulouse station; it is managed as a RIRS. The flight was designated as VS02 (Vehicle Soyuz 02) in the Arianespace launcher family numbering system. 43). During the satellite development, the useful parameters of the three image quality models are identified and at least one dedicated calibration procedure has to be defined and validated before launch thanks to simulated images. Given the dual nature of this system, two types of access are defined to schedule the satellites’ tasks: - The Defense channel used by Ministry of Defense beneficiaries for High Priority Defense programming requests. The Pléiades-HR 1A was launched on December 17, 2011, from the Guiana Space Centre, Kourou, French Guiana, and was joined by Pléiades-HR 1B on December 2, 2012. Like other Earth observing space systems, Pleiades has been designed to meet its performance requirements throughout its lifetime. Since 2006, more than 40 studies have been led by scientists and thematic experts from French and Belgium institutions, in close link with public end-users such as Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Ecology, French national cartographic institute, etc. Regional image receiving stations have been installed (Japan, China and Canada). Pleiades-IA is the first satellite of the Pleiades constellation. Figure 33: Architecture of the Pleiades ground segment (image credit: CNES). The ELISA demonstration constellation of microsatellites is based on the Myriade platform of CNES and was developed by by EADS/Astrium SAS and TAS-F (Thales Alenia Space-France) as co-prime contractors. Figure 22: Image of Bora Bora Island in Polynesia observed by Pleiades-1A on January 3, 2012 (image credit: CNES) 46), • The Pleiades-1A satellite imager captured the first panchromatic satellite images 3 days after its successful launch from the Kourou launch site (French Guiana) via a Russian Soyuz ST rocket on December 16, 2011. The geometric model parameters are estimated in two steps. monitoring large gathering/summits, updating databases . Free open source image handling and processing tools set up in the ORFEO methodological part will be provided, if needed, for easier access to data. • The radiometric model is used to convert raw digital counts to TOA (Top-of-Atmosphere) radiance and to normalize the inter-detector sensitivities. This plate provides the vertical stiffness required by the launcher. 800 km wide ground strip, covering 200 km in 11 s or 800 km in 25 s, including stabilization time. Astrium Geo-Information Services takes over the spacecraft operations of the civil channel with an exclusive license once each Pleiades satellite has been commissioned. The ASAP-S external configuration accommodates spacecraft weighing up to 200 kg, while the internal position is designed to accept a payload with a maximum mass of 400 kg. Three high-accuracy star trackers (STR) are used for attitude sensing, with separate optical heads. DORIS is the CNES tracking system, based on measurements between the satellite and dedicated ground stations at two frequencies (400 MHz and 2 GHz). About 70 geographical sites related to almost 130 thematic studies have been selected in the framework of PUTC. Its comprehensive portfolio means Airbus is able to provide the right satellite and system for every customer – whether they need a weather-independent data source, a small constellation for high-frequency revisits, very high-resolution imagery or even all of the above (and more) in a single system. The dual service concept is seen in the data requirements of the defense and civilian communities with an option of a daily revisit capability. 47). The solar array size is minimized by using high-efficiency triple-junction cells. Some South American Indians use the same word for ”Pleiades” and ”year.” The cluster was first examined telescopically by Galilei Galileo, who found more than 40 members. 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