Heart sutra: Ancient Buddhist wisdom in the light of quantum reality. Hahn, N. (1988). At which point did the car disappear? Culture may play a critical role in this process. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press. - 6237038 These differences can be noted mainly in people’s behavior and attitudes. They are the consciousnesses of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching. Self-concept is a concept or belief that an individual has of him or herself as an emotional, spiritual, and social being. Hahn, N. (1991). What this means is that they cannot have any existence except in terms of the interconnected net of causal conditions that made their existence possible. Eastern vs. Western Spiritual Practices By Maurice Turmel, PhD . Subscribe to my channel! Consider, for example, an automobile. Rogers (1951) defined the self as “an organized, fluid, but consistent conceptual pattern of perceptions of characteristics and relationships of the ‘I’ or ‘me,’ together with values attached to these concepts.” However, despite emphasizing a pattern-like notion of the self, his allusions to the “self-structure,” as well as the suggestion that the self can actually revise or modify the structure of the self, retain a homuncular quality, albeit not as sharply drawn as that of his predecessors. He was a founder of the school known as the Vijnanavada (“path of knowledge”) or Yogacara (“application of yoga”), and the author of one of the most important books of Buddhist psychology, the Abhidharmakosa. The concept of the Self takes many forms in Western psychology, but invariably involves to some extent a dimension of “thingness,” the reification of a homunculus assumed to reside within the individual, who is the thinker of thoughts, the doer of deeds, and the feeler of feelings. The delusion of separateness results in cravings, grasping, clinging, greed, selfishness, hatred, fear, feelings of alienation, loneliness, helplessness, and anxiety, which afflict those “healthy” as well as “unhealthy.” Culture differences are a very hot topic in business as well as at holiday parties. Debunk interning in eastern cultures vs. western cultures with GoAbroad. This larger awareness guides the individual in compassionate action, and eliminates unnecessary worries and suffering about impermanent events, which can now be accepted as the momentary contents of reality. Before we start inventing a new flavor of Buddhism to suit Western palettes, it is important to look closely at the implicit assumptions we are bringing to this project. William James explicitly talked of the social self. The same is true for anything else in the universe, including a person. Western perspectives about self are inherently dualistic. They are essentially patterns, configurations, or, Consider, for example, an automobile. Removing one of the tires of the car, one could ask oneself, is this the car? Client-centered therapy: Its current practice, implications and theory. The highest conclusion and discovery of Western psychology is the starting point of Eastern psychology, especially the psychology of yoga. According to the teaching of the Buddha, the idea of a [personal] self is an imaginary, false belief which has no corresponding reality, and it produces harmful thoughts of “me” and “mine,” selfish desire, craving, attachment, hatred, ill-will, conceit, pride, egoism, and other defilements, impurities and problems. There is no end to this causal interconnectedness. Peace is every step: The path of mindfulness in everyday life. Eastern and western philosophy of self 1. Eastern psychologies maintain that, as a result of social and self-conditioning, our ambitions, beliefs, desires, expectations, preconceptions, and views of the nature of reality are illusory. People constantly act, behave, and live out their lives as if reifications were actually real, separate entities, rather than the delusory constructions of the mind. A fist. Nisbett points out that Western philosophers emphasised freedom and independence, whereas Eastern traditions like Taoism tended to focus on … http://goo.gl/seB92J Tweet me! 3. When crossing the street, it is not enough to contemplate an approaching car and to realize that we are one with it. On the contrary, it empowers the individual by erasing the boundaries of separateness that limit the personal ego or self. (1998). The fifth skandha includes eight consciousnesses, one of which results in the experience of the ego or self as homunculus, which Buddhist psychology rejects as delusion. Allowing oneself to indulge in anger or hatred waters the corresponding seeds, so that it becomes easier to grow angry and to experience hate. It is the repository of all potential activities of the other consciousnesses. This paper will compare and contrast these differing views emerging from Western and Eastern psychology, and examine their relevance for psychotherapy and everyday life. Although some Eastern conceptions of the self, most notably those derived from Hinduism, which center on the Vedic notion of the atman or soul, are similar to Western ideas of the self, Buddhist psychology provides a radically different interpretation. He was a founder of the school known as the Vijnanavada (“path of knowledge”) or Yogacara (“application of yoga”), and the author of one of the most important books of Buddhist psychology, the, According to Vasubandhu, all that can be experienced to exist is “mind only,” or the mental processes of knowing. The illumination is one ongoing phenomenon, integrating the contributions of the individual bulbs. Think of a room illuminated by seven lightbulbs. Alan Watts, the late British philosopher, proposed that there were two great myths of the self—myth here not used in the sense of something false, but rather as a way of interpreting oneself and one’s reality. What would remain of it, if one removed one’s perception of it, one’s feelings about it, one’s impulses to act on it or with it, and one’s conscious awareness of it? Re: It could be argued that the self needs to be strengthened before it can be abandoned. Feelings are feelings about something, about one’s body, one’s perceptions, one’s impulses, one’s state of consciousness. The concept of the self in Western psychology derives primarily from the work of Freud, Jung, and Rogers. It is to “thing” an event or a phenomenon, to transform an ongoing, fluid process, into a frozen and static spatial or temporal cross-section of the same, endowing such construction with the qualities of reality and separateness. Now all we have is a pile of parts—where is the car? Heart sutra: Ancient Buddhist wisdom in the light of quantum reality. True wisdom is automatically manifested as universal compassion, just as true compassion manifests itself as wisdom. Clearly any such concerns would vanish instantly upon realizing the water-nature of the ocean, and its oneness with it. All things (including human beings) are composites, in other words, they are composed of parts, and have no real existence other than as temporary (impermanent) collections of parts. . To some extent Western formulations of the … They are essentially patterns, configurations, or Gestalten rather than objectively existing separate entities. The Buddhist notion of self circumvents reification, being an impermanent gestalt formed by the interaction of five skandhas or aggregates (form, feelings, perceptions, impulses, consciousness). The first five correspond to the five basic sense fields, and share the same level of depth. Although some Eastern conceptions of the self, most notably those derived from Hinduism, which center on the Vedic notion of the atman or soul, are similar to Western ideas of the self, Buddhist psychology provides a radically different interpretation. The self is located at the center within the individual through which the world is perceived. The practice and theory of individual psychology. It could be argued that the self needs to be strengthened before it can be abandoned. It's nice to know that there really is no separate me and that Life is just happening - for no one.Thanks for your magnificent articles,jim :). Pattern and growth in personality. With Jung the self, transcending the ego, became ultimately identical with the whole psyche. Sigmund Freud (1940) offered a complex model of this inner self in his tripartite analysis of the human personality into id, ego, and superego, which became a distinguishing feature of his psychoanalytic theory. In the same way, all human problems and suffering disappear when the illusion of a separate self is eliminated. Religious views on the self vary widely. The five skandhas, like everything else, are dependently arisen, and cannot exist by themselves. (1961). East and West may have numerous differences based on culture. Now open your fingers. What is needed is appropriate action in the relative world, while maintaining awareness of the big picture. Collectivism – individuals are part of a group and the needs of the group come before the individual. They also cannot exist by themselves. Western philosophers have never been completely blind to these questions. The west wants it … While understanding universal interconnectedness and absolute reality, the emptiness or nothingness of Buddhism, the person needs at the same time to experience reality in the relative sense, where individual identities exist. In this example, the electricity that activates them is the equivalent of the alayavijnana. There is no end to this causal interconnectedness. According to Vasubandhu, all that can be experienced to exist is “mind only,” or the mental processes of knowing. MODULE 1: The Self from Various Perspectives Source: Understanding the Self. In Eastern philosophy, though, the self is often treated as an illusion. New York: Grove. Furthermore, in the alayavijnana, the “seeds” affect each other in various ways. According to Vasubandhu, all that can be experienced to exist is “mind only,” or the mental processes of knowing. Each skandha is in turn a transient pattern formed by the interaction of the other four. Such part, if found, would have represented the essence or the “soul” of the car, and yet it was nowhere to be found. Loy, D. (1992). One of the most important ones was Vasubandhu, an oustanding Buddhist scholar living in the 4th century. Just diagnosing and treating the physical body can be effective, especially when dealing with traumas, infections, and cancers. Through analyzing the They are the consciousnesses of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching. This paper will compare and contrast these differing views emerging from Western and Eastern psychology, and examine their relevance for psychotherapy and everyday life. Zen Buddhism. If we reflect carefully we are left with the realization that there never was a car there—all that was there was a conglomerate of parts temporarily connected in a certain way, so as to result in a particular mode of functioning, and “car” was just a convenient label to designate this working arrangement. This can be grasped best with another metaphor, often found in Buddhist literature. Jen is a second generation Chinese-American who speaks from her experiences navigating two distinct kinds of selves—an Asian identity shaped at home by her immigrant parents and a Western identity acquired outside the home growing up in Scarsdale, New York. (Original work published 1940). Being aware of the phenomenon of awareness results in the mistaken notion of an inner perceiver who is having the awareness and who is separate from it. The Buddhist notions of the self are derived from the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, better known as Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply Buddha (“the one who is awake”), after his experience of enlightenment under the bodhi tree over 2,500 years ago. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. The psychology of Buddhism, on the other hand, rejects the notion of an inner self and proposes a radically different view, where thoughts exist without a thinker, deeds without a doer, and feelings without a feeler. According to Buddhist psychology, what we call a “person” is the composite of five groups of elements or skandhas. Comparison of Western and Eastern Concepts of Self Western Eastern Duality- you are distinct from other persons Other persons are part of your self Talk about their personal attributes Talk about their social roles Highlights personal achievements Keeps a low profile and avoid boastfulness Individualistic- focus on the person Collectivistic- group and social relations are more important … In a Platonic tradition, concepts were seen to entail universals, applying always and for ever. The gestalt, the “whole,” cannot exist by itself; it does not have a separate self or “soul.” A fist. The psychology of C. G. Jung. It is the repository of all potential activities of the other consciousnesses. Similarities and differences in society. (1927). Skinner, B.F. (1971). But for the logger to be, his parents had to be, and the food they consumed, and all the conditions that made their lives possible, and those lives upon which theirs in turn depended, and on, and on. After "strengthening" my ego through self esteem work and venting an ocean of bottled up sorrow and rage, I am now able to work with the "no me/I/self" process taught by you and Tony Parsons and at Liberation Unleashed. Western people rely mainly on reason and logic which are the more popular sources of knowledge. Does it have an essence or a “soul” when separated from its component parts? Eastern perspectives about self are inherently non-dualistic. Adler, A. Essentially the soul, mind, or self was viewed as an inner substance or entity, different from the body, in charge of volitional processes, essentially a “little man inside of the head,” a homunculus within the individual, ultimately responsible for the person’s thoughts and actions. Being aware of the phenomenon of awareness results in the mistaken notion of an inner perceiver who is having the awareness and who is separate from it. They are essentially patterns, configurations, or Gestalten rather than objectively existing separate entities. But now look again: where are the boundaries of the wave? Certainly. To some extent Western formulations of the self evidence a homunculus-like quality lacking in some Eastern conceptions, especially those derived from the Vijnanavada and Zen Buddhist traditions. 141-207). Horney, K. (1950). The concept of the self in Western psychology derives primarily from the work of Freud, Jung, and Rogers. In this sutra, the universe is likened to an infinite net, stretching out in all directions, in which at every intersection of two strands is found a precious jewel. The same is true of the remaining skandhas—each one is composed of the other four. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press. Wisdom and compassion are dependently arisen, they “inter-are.” In the final analysis, wisdom is compassion, and compassion is wisdom (Mosig, 1989). Furthermore, Western Ethics places more emphasis on law and justice, whereas Eastern Ethics states that one must do what is right and expected and the universe will take care of the rest. In J. Strachey (Ed. What do you see? Western and Eastern medicines identify and treat different “bodies.” Which one needs the treatment? Successively taking away the windshield, a door, a piston, a bolt, the radiator cap, and continuing until the last piece of metal, plastic, glass, or rubber has been removed, one would never find the part which, if removed, transforms what remains into a non-car. Personally, I am tired of seeing Westerners adopting an Eastern stance for Personal Growth and Connecting with Spirit. The east takes time and has patience. Collectivism – individuals are part of a group and the needs of the group come before the individual. The concept of the self in Western psychology derives primarily from the work of Freud, Jung, and Rogers. University of Nebraska at Kearney (Kornfield & Breiter, 1985, p. 174) But for the logger to be, his parents had to be, and the food they consumed, and all the conditions that made their lives possible, and those lives upon which theirs in turn depended, and on, and on. Essentially the soul, mind, or self was viewed as an inner substance or entity, different from the body, in charge of volitional processes, essentially a “little man inside of the head,” a homunculus within the individual, ultimately responsible for the person’s thoughts and actions. On the contrary, it empowers the individual by erasing the boundaries of separateness that limit the personal ego or self. While these aggregates are together, the functioning gestalt we call a person exists; if they are removed, the gestalt ceases to be. New York: Pantheon. This same piece of paper, is also because there was rain and sunshine, for without them the tree could not have grown. Allport, G. (1961). Therefore, the self-concept is the idea of who I am, kind of like a self-reflection of one's well-being. The psychology of C. G. Jung. The five skandhas, like everything else, are dependently arisen, and cannot exist by themselves. Helper Pointers to I AM Awakening, etc by Angelo Gerangelo, Öffentlich Covid-geimpfte Krankenschwester möglicherweise gestorben, In Front of Asses, Behind Horses: Illuminating Satori vs. Kensho in Zen, Refuting The External World Is Free For The Next 5 Days. Although the archetypes in the Jungian collective unconscious manifest themselves in dreams and visions, the individual cannot modify their character. It certainly seems to be. In B. Engler, Personality theories: An introduction (5th ed., pp. Successively taking away the windshield, a door, a piston, a bolt, the radiator cap, and continuing until the last piece of metal, plastic, glass, or rubber has been removed, one would never find the part which, if removed, transforms what remains into a non-car. Or is it? Neurosis and human growth. And what about feelings? Stated differently, the paper cannot exist by itself; it lacks a separate self, soul, or essence. This develops positive mental habits rooted in the seeds of the alayavijnana, and has far-reaching effects on the life and well-being of the individual. This essay shall seek to describe some of the fundamental tenants of African and Western Psychology. But it is not only the self that is empty, and cannot exist by itself; the skandhas themselves are also empty. Zen Buddhism. This means that nothing is ever truly independent or separate from everything else. In analyzing a mythological work, a proper understanding of the nature of the self and its relation to the Cosmos is essential. The interconnectedness, or “interbeing,” of everything in the universe, implied in the principle of dependent origination, finds an elegant expression in the metaphor of the jewel net of Indra, in the Buddha’s “Flower Ornament” sermon (Avatamsaka Sutra). An outline of psycho-analysis. Epstein, M. (1995). These “seeds,” upon development, produce all sorts of mental phenomena. . 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