Pneumonia adalah suatu peradangan pada paru yang menyebabkan adanya gangguan fungsi pada paru. [43] In other infections, such as malaria, lung involvement is due primarily to cytokine-induced systemic inflammation. He also reported the results of surgical drainage of empyemas. [61] If the score is 0 or 1, people can typically be managed at home; if it is 2, a short hospital stay or close follow-up is needed; if it is 3–5, hospitalization is recommended. [34] Testing for other specific organisms may be recommended during outbreaks, for public health reasons. [125] The choice of antibiotic will depend on several factors, including the suspected causative organism and whether pneumonia was acquired in the community or developed in a hospital setting. [65], Physical examination may sometimes reveal low blood pressure, high heart rate, or low oxygen saturation. [3][14] Symptoms typically include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever and difficulty breathing. Les contenus présents ne sont destinés qu’à des fins d’information. The lungs quickly fill with fluid and become stiff. Apabila pneumonia sederhana kepada dadah yang teruk pilihan adalah penisilin, yang ditadbir secara intraotot dalam dos 1-2 juta unit setiap 4 jam. [83] Other vaccines for which there is support for a protective effect against pneumonia include pertussis, varicella, and measles. [23], The spreading of organisms is facilitated by certain risk factors. Long-term antibiotics are usually adequate to treat a lung abscess, but sometimes the abscess must be drained by a surgeon or radiologist. [73] Pneumonia in children may additionally be classified based on signs and symptoms as non-severe, severe, or very severe.[74]. Sedangkan pneumonia bakterial adalah peradangan paru yang disebabkan … [12][54] The overall impression of a physician appears to be at least as good as decision rules for making or excluding the diagnosis. Penyakit yang dimaksud di sini tidak termasuk dengan yang disebabkan oleh Mycobacteriumtuberculosis. In 2012 the estimated aggregate costs of treating pneumonia in the United States were $20 billion;[153] the median cost of a single pneumonia-related hospitalization is over $15,000. Les virus sont responsables d'environ la moitié de tous les cas de pneumonie. [130] Abscesses typically occur in aspiration pneumonia, and often contain several types of bacteria. Tuberkulosis (TB) paru adalah tuberkulosis yang menyerang jaringan paru ... (pneumonia, bronkiektasis dll) Dalam hal ini berikan dahulu antibiotik selama 2 minggu, kemudian dievaluasi.- Infeksi jamur- TB paru kambuh. Pneumonia atau bronkopneumonia adalah suatu peradangan/ inflamasi parenkim paru, distal dari bronkiolus terminalis yang mencakup bronkiolus respiratorius dan alveoli, serta menimbulkan konsolidasi jaringan paru dan gangguan pertukaran gas setempat. [62] C-reactive protein (CRP) may help support the diagnosis. Même si la maladie initiale était un rhume banal, les bactéries peuvent facilement causer une infection secondaire qui entraînera une pneumonie grave. Terutama, apabila pneumonia tersebut menyerang paru-paru bagian bawah. [61] Microbiological evaluation is also indicated in severe pneumonia, alcoholism, asplenia, immunosuppression, HIV infection, and those being empirically treated for MRSA of pseudomonas. Pada keadaan normal, saat bernafas paru – paru kita terisi oleh udara, namun pada keadaan pneumonia, kantung alveoli terisi oleh pus dan mukus, sehingga … [12][13] Rates are greatest in children less than five, and adults older than 75 years. [44], Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia or noninfectious pneumonia[45] is a class of diffuse lung diseases. [12] No specific antiviral medications are recommended for other types of community acquired viral pneumonias including SARS coronavirus, adenovirus, hantavirus, and parainfluenza virus. [24][84][87] In children less than 6 months of age, exclusive breast feeding reduces both the risk and severity of disease. [12] The use of corticosteroids is controversial. [37] Other causes of circulatory failure are hypoxemia, inflammation, and increased coagulability. [61] American guidelines vary, from generally recommending a follow-up chest radiograph[127] to not mentioning any follow-up. Pneumonia ialah suatu radang paru yang disebabkan oleh bermacam-macam etiologi seperti bakteri, virus, jamur dan benda asing (FKUI, 1985).Terjadinya pneumonia … [22] In people with mild disease, imaging is needed only in those with potential complications, those not having improved with treatment, or those in which the cause is uncertain. Compared with health care–associated pneumonia, it is less likely to involve multidrug-resistant bacteria. [8] Chest X-rays, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis. [23], In 2008, pneumonia occurred in approximately 156 million children (151 million in the developing world and 5 million in the developed world). Tanda-tanda bayi mengalami pneumonia karena bakteri, adalah: Demam tinggi, napas cepat. [142] Initial work identifying the two common bacterial causes, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, was performed by Carl Friedländer[143] and Albert Fraenkel[144] in 1882 and 1884, respectively. [1] Le deuxième moyen, c'est la vaccination. [36][112][70] In children with mild or moderate symptoms, amoxicillin taken by mouth is the first line. Limfoma. La majorité des infections bactériennes et certaines infections virales peuvent être détectées par l'analyse des expectorations ou du sang. [12], In general, aspiration pneumonitis is treated conservatively with antibiotics indicated only for aspiration pneumonia. Votre médecin vous donnera des conseils sur les moyens de soulager les symptômes d'une pneumonie virale. [70] Side effects associated with the use of corticosteroids include high blood sugar. [34], Procalcitonin may help determine the cause and support defcisions about who should receive antibiotics. [34], Most bacteria enter the lungs via small aspirations of organisms residing in the throat or nose. Salah satu diantaranya adalah berdasarkan cara perolehannya, yang dapat digolongkan kedalam fua kategori, yaitu "community-acquired" (diperoleh diluar institusi kesehatan) dan "hospital-acquired" (diperoleh di rumah sakit atau sarana kesehatan lainnya). [93] In the frail elderly good oral health care may lower the risk of aspiration pneumonia. Harsh breath sounds from the larger airways that are transmitted through the inflamed lung are termed bronchial breathing and are heard on auscultation with a stethoscope. De plus, les vaccins contre les pneumocoques sont recommandés pour les personnes de plus de 65 ans, celles qui sont atteintes de maladies cardiaques ou pulmonaires chroniques et celles qui ont subi une splénectomie (ablation de la rate). Pneumonia merupakan peradangan paru-paru yang terjadi akibat infeksi virus, bakteri, serta benda asing. Influenza vaccines are modestly effective at preventing symptoms of influenza,[12][77] The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends yearly influenza vaccination for every person 6 months and older. [9] In elderly people, confusion may be the most prominent sign. Crackles heard in the lungs of a person with pneumonia using a stethoscope. La pneumonie est une inflammation des poumons habituellement causée par une infection. Pneumonia disebabkan oleh virus dan biasanya tidak diobati dengan antibiotik. [105] There is insufficient evidence for mucolytics. Pneumonia juga dapat terjadi apabila seseorang menghirup bahan kimia toksik. Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung primarily affecting the small air sacs known as alveoli. Severe pneumonia should be differentiated from acute heart failure. Pulmonary infiltrates that resolved after giving mechanical ventilation should point to heart failure and atelectasis rather than pneumonia. Antibiotic use is also associated with side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, taste distortion, or headaches. Meskipun penyakit ini sudah dikenal luas di berbagai wilayah, … [35] However, findings may vary, and other patterns are common in other types of pneumonia. À l’origine des pneumonies, on trouve des bactéries, des virus ou des champignons. Outre les maladies infectieuses, la pneumonie peut être causée par des substances chimiques qui pénètrent dans les poumons et y provoquent de l'inflammation. [108] Regarding circulatory problems as part of sepsis, evidence of poor blood flow or low blood pressure is initially treated with 30 ml/kg of crystalloid infused intravenously. [12][13] Many of these deaths occur in the newborn period. Microaspiration of contaminated secretions can infect the lower airways and cause pneumonia. Reimann, Chairman of the Department of Medicine at Jefferson Medical College, had established the practice of routinely typing the pneumoccocal organism in cases where pneumonia presented. [12] A causative agent may not be isolated in about half of cases despite careful testing. Pneumonia adalah proses infeksi akut yang mengenai jaringan paru-paru (alveoli) (Depkes RI, 1996). [36][115], For those who require hospitalization and caught their pneumonia in the community the use of a β-lactam such as cephazolin plus macrolide such as azithromycin is recommended. [27], Pneumonia is due to infections caused primarily by bacteria or viruses and less commonly by fungi and parasites. [34] For those with Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Legionella infections, prolonged antibiotics may be beneficial. À l'aide d'un stéthoscope, il écoutera aussi les bruits dans vos poumons. [22][23], Bacterial and viral cases of pneumonia usually result in similar symptoms. [99] There is tentative evidence that laying flat on the back compared to semi-raised increases pneumonia risks in people who are intubated. [24] Once in the lungs, bacteria may invade the spaces between cells and between alveoli, where the macrophages and neutrophils (defensive white blood cells) attempt to inactivate the bacteria. [37] Commonly implicated agents include rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, and parainfluenza. Pneumonia ini dapat disebabkan oleh bakteri, virus ataupun jamur. [27], In pneumonia, a collection of fluid may form in the space that surrounds the lung. [26] Pneumonia caused by Klebsiella may have bloody sputum often described as "currant jelly". Virus corona merupakan salah satu virus yang dapat menyebabkan pneumonia, sehingga pneumonia karena virus corona juga akan … Data dari World Health Organization (WHO) menyatakan bahwa pneumonia adalah penyakit infeksi yang paling sering menyebabkan kematian pada anak-anak di seluruh dunia. [116][70] A fluoroquinolone may replace azithromycin but is less preferred. Although more than 100 strains of infectious agents have been identified, only a few are responsible for the majority of cases. [138] The word is from Greek πνεύμων (pneúmōn) meaning "lung". [130], In rare circumstances, bacteria in the lung will form a pocket of infected fluid called a lung abscess. [81] The pneumococcal vaccine has been shown to reduce the risk of community acquired pneumonia in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but does not reduce mortality or the risk of hospitalization for people with this condition. Bien qu'elle soit devenue facile à traiter, la pneumonie demeure un problème de santé publique. [34], Prevention includes vaccination, environmental measures and appropriate treatment of other health problems. [76] In those treated in hospital, more than 90% improve with the initial antibiotics. [22], X-ray presentations of pneumonia may be classified as lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, lobular pneumonia, and interstitial pneumonia. WHO memperkirakan bahwa 3: 1 kematian bayi baru lahir disebabkan pneumonia. The progress of pneumonia is determined by the virulence of the organism; the amount of organism required to start an infection; and the body's immune response against the infection. La pneumonie bactérienne est le plus souvent causée par la bactérie Streptococcus pneumoniae (le pneumocoque). Voici d'autres symptômes possibles de la pneumonie bactérienne : La pneumonie virale ne cause pas d'accumulation de liquide dans les poumons; elle provoque plutôt une inflammation du tissu pulmonaire lui-même. [12] Influenza A may be treated with rimantadine or amantadine, while influenza A or B may be treated with oseltamivir, zanamivir or peramivir. [130] If this shows evidence of empyema, complete drainage of the fluid is necessary, often requiring a drainage catheter. [37] Other viral infections occur when contaminated airborne droplets are inhaled through the nose or mouth. [12][38] Herpes simplex virus rarely causes pneumonia, except in groups such as newborns, persons with cancer, transplant recipients, and people with significant burns. L'accumulation de liquide dans les poumons peut être mise en évidence par la radiographie pulmonaire ou la tomodensitométrie. [84] Wearing surgical masks by the sick may also prevent illness. Satu ciri penyakit ini adalah kursus yang panjang dan teruk. People may become infected with pneumonia in a hospital; this is defined as pneumonia not present at the time of admission (symptoms must start at least 48 hours after admission). Les pneumonies peuvent également être provoquées par l'inhalation d'irritants comme les vomissures, des liquides ou des produits chimiques.Lors d'une pneumonie, les alvéoles (pochettes d'air) des poumons se remplissent de liquide ou de pus qui entrave le transfert d'oxygène dans le sang par les poumons. Edwin Klebs was the first to observe bacteria in the airways of persons having died of pneumonia in 1875. Le risque de pneumonie est plus élevé dans les cas suivants : Il existe des différences importantes entre les deux vaccins antipneumococciques offerts aux adultes canadiens. Tous les contenus sont la propriété de MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2020. [2] X-ray findings typically clear within four weeks and mortality is low (less than 1%). (Kode ICD X Pneumonia : J18.9) [65] Thus, treatment is frequently based on the presence of influenza in the community or a rapid influenza test. [12] Viral pneumonia accounts for about 200 million cases. [23] Percussion may be dulled over the affected lung, and increased, rather than decreased, vocal resonance distinguishes pneumonia from a pleural effusion. [61] However, those with other medical conditions, the elderly, or those with significant trouble breathing may require more advanced care. [85] Zanamivir or oseltamivir decrease the chance that people who are exposed to the virus will develop symptoms; however, it is recommended that potential side effects are taken into account. La présence de crachats peu épais et blanchâtres est un indicateur possible de pneumonie causée par un virus ou un mycoplasme. Out of this work, the distinction between viral and bacterial strains was noticed. La pneumonie par aspiration est causée par l'aspiration accidentelle d'aliments, de vomissements ou d'acide gastrique dans les poumons. [20] The number of cases of fungal pneumonia has been increasing in the latter half of the 20th century due to increasing travel and rates of immunosuppression in the population. Pneumonia adalah peradangan pada satu atau kedua paru. Le premier, c'est d'adopter un régime alimentaire riche en fruits et en légumes, de rester en bonne forme physique et de dormir suffisamment. [94] Zinc supplementation in children 2 months to five years old appears to reduce rates of pneumonia. [145], Sir William Osler, known as "the father of modern medicine", appreciated the death and disability caused by pneumonia, describing it as the "captain of the men of death" in 1918, as it had overtaken tuberculosis as one of the leading causes of death in this time. , surgery may be more accurate than chest X-ray, pneumonia is the most prominent sign karena virus lung... 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